Category Archives: 1

Batman v Superman – Floral Symbolism


I was curious about the placement of flowers in the nightmare bat sequence when Bruce visits the mausoleum and the final resting place of his parents. On closer study, I noticed that the flowers are not just some random bouquet one might purchase at a floral shop or garden store. Since the bunch of flowers isn’t wrapped in paper or plastic and appears to be torn or broken from their stems, it is apparent that Bruce picked these wildflowers in much the same way he did in his youth.

Thanks to my two friends Andrew (Master Herbalist) and Rob (Floral Designer), I was able to make a fair identification of the wildflowers. The selection is made up of four different types of flowers. Each having its own natural properties as well as symbolic, mythological and cultural histories. It is in this assessment that I found remarkable connections to the Bruce Wayne character, the Wayne family and this particular point of the film.

Yarrow: (Millefolium) The Latin name means “thousand leaves” and has long been associated with the Greek hero Achilles and mighty warriors in need of healing. This flower is found in meadows, often the site of land battles and is used as a strong medicinal treatment. The plant was long referred to as Soldier’s Woundwort and Staunchweed because of its ability to affect the clotting of blood. The plant was also used to fight evil and fortify warriors with courage and protection. The common name “Yarrow” is derived from the Dutch/Saxon word gearwe. To herbalists, this means “healer”. But in old English tales of war and battle, “gearwe” is taken to mean “to arm oneself in protective clothing/armor”, highlighting the protective beliefs surrounding Yarrow. Another more profound connection of Yarrow is in the claim that the plant actually helps bind loose soil in overworked or diseased plots of land. The root’s secretions actually protect the plants around it, making them more resistant to disease.

Misty Limonium: The Limonium is widely used in flower arranging. It belongs to a family of flowers most frequently called “statice”. These flowers in the wild are plentiful and often seen in thick patches across meadows. These are most often thought of as a symbol of remembrance and sympathy and are quite often brought to grave sites and funerals. They are also thought of as a symbol of eventual reunion. This rings true in the visit to Bruce’s mother’s grave and the lifelong sorrow he carries over her loss and that of his father. In addition, and rather accurate for the Wayne family, the Limonium can mean “success.”This particular flower appears to be blue or “Misty”, which in statice is a symbol of loyalty, inspiration, and intelligence – and stands as a symbol of emotional support.

Nineleaf Biscuitroot: (Lomatium Triternatum) Also known as “Desert Parsley” or “Indian Parsley”. This is a very strong herb, known to cause transformative hallucinations (Bat Demon?) and a powerful anti-viral, even used in the treatment of HIV. The herb is sometimes combined with liquor (vodka, gin) to create an extended shelf-life with a simple application method. Native Americans utilized the hallucinogenic properties to attain a heightened state said to take one to the outer edge of death.


Up, up and away…

FB_IMG_1512726231109You know…I am a diehard DC fan. Thick and thin, I stand at the ready to fight back against the haters and naysayers that love to mock the heroes of my childhood as if they’re out of date or somehow defective. But, no! The DC heroes are iconic and classic. They are not mutant victims, but beings that have risen to preserve humanity and peace amongst the children of this world and its neighbors. These are figures of American folklore that have endured throughout the years to become heroic figures to inspire not only Americans…but our neighbors and friends around the world. The DC heroes stand for fighting oppression and doing what’s right. They stand for turning the darkness toward the light and giving back. We are not perfect. But as a boy – when I heard the television reports of families in distress or terrible disasters or wars – it was Superman and Batman and the figures of our unique folklore that inspired me to want to help. Our heroes are not dragging their feet in self-pity, or teenaged angst. These are not the victims rising up against a terrible world…but the gifted ones flying in the light of the sun to ensure an equal peace for all.

One final thought. The recent “Justice League” film. I am sick of hearing people qualify their enjoyment of the film as being, “Not perfect, but…”. No, the film was NOT perfect. For better or worse, Snyder’s vision was skewed and Whedon put a strange shine on a world already looking brighter for a new day. But in the end…it was STILL pretty damned special! And I’d rather watch the CGI’d face of Superman fight alongside his brothers and sisters of my childhood any day than suffer through even ten minutes of “Age of Ultron!”

Up, up and away!



  • The average human body has about 1.3 gallons (5 L) of blood
  • It accounts for 7% of total body weight
  • Veins are large blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The lungs oxygenate the blood with oxygen from the air. Then, the blood goes into arteries. Arteries are large blood vessels that carry the newly oxygenated blood to every corner of the body

This is a map of major arteries and veins in the human body.

  • If one of these arteries or veins is cut open, the victim may bleed out within several minutes. Bleeding to death is called desanguination (massive loss of blood) or exsanguination (complete loss of blood)
  • Alcoholics or those with liver disease are particularly at risk for de/exsanguination because an impaired liver reduces the blood’s clotting ability

Bleeding (scientifically known as Hemorrhaging (America)/Hæmorrhaging (Britain))

  • Class I – loss of 0-15% (0-0.75 L) of a victim’s blood; vital signs stable; transfusions and saline solutions not necessary; just to be safe, victim should not engage in vigorous physical activity
  • Class II – loss of 15-30% (0.75 L-1.5 L) of a victim’s blood; victim experiences a faster heartbeat; skin cools and appears pale; victim appears dazed or irritable; saline solutions may be necessary
  • Class III – loss of 30-40% (1.5 L-2 L) of a victim’s blood; blood pressure drops; heart rate increases; victim goes into shock; victim is mentally deficient, dazed, has difficulty moving, is hard to understand, and acts strangely; saline solutions and blood transfusions necessary
  • Class IV – loss of 40% (+2 L) or more of a victim’s blood; victim passes out; saline and blood; heart goes into ventricular tachycardia (the heart beats unsustainably fast); transfusions necessary; require resuscitation to prevent death;
  • A cancer patient was found with just 25% (0.9 L) of her blood in her system and survived. She lost the blood over a period of weeks, not all at once
  • Donating blood about takes 8-10% (0.4-0.5 L) of a person’s blood
  • The average woman loses 1 cup (0.24 L) of blood during menstruation
  • Redheads do not bleed faster than other hair types

The Color of Blood

  • Humans and other mammals have red blood because of a compound called hemoglobin. Blood from veins is darker red than blood from arteries because arterial blood is oxygenated. Veins appear blue because of the light-scattering properties of skin, not because the blood is actually blue.
  • Victims of carbon monoxide poisoning have bright red blood
  • Victims of cyanide poisoning have bright red blood in their veins
  • Skinks have green blood
  • Squid, cuttlefish, snails, slugs, and horseshoe crabs have blue blood
  • Sea squirts and sea cucumbers have blood that turns yellow when exposed to oxygen

Blood Types

  • Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of antigens – substances that trigger an immune reaction to foreign objects in the body. An A blood type has A antigens, a B blood type has B antigens, an AB blood type has both A and B antigens, and an O blood type has neither A nor B antigens on red blood cells, but A and B antigens in the plasma
  • Type O can donate to A, B, AB, and O; Type A can donate to A and AB; Type B can donate to B and AB; AB can donate to AB
  • The universal blood cell receiver is AB
  • There is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be present (creating a + blood type) or absent (creating a – blood type)
  • The universal red cell donor is O negative
  • The universal plasma donor is AB positive
  • O+ and A+ are the most common blood types
  • B- and AB- are the least common blood types

Blood types are inherited through the parent. This Red Cross chart will help you figure out someone’s blood type



Reprinted from Reference for Writers